The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and Shell has launched a report, “India: Transforming to a net-zero emissions energy system” that has assessed India’s technology and policy options if it were to accelerate its transition to a net zero emissions energy system by 2050. According to the report following actions will be required to meet the goal if it is set:

Accelerate clean technologies:

  • Grow the power sector by a factor of more than four in 30 years, dominated by renewables (around 90 per cent)
  • Target 13 per cent hydrogen in final energy, including as a fuel for industry and transport
  • Transform bioenergy, with liquid biofuels surpassing petroleum products by 2040 to fuel industry and transport, including hard-to-abate sectors such as aviation

Support energy-efficient and lower-carbon choices:

  • Invest in processes, technologies and end uses to improve energy intensity per unit of GDP by almost 60 per cent by 2050, a rate of improvement nearly twice historical levels
  • Adopt economic mechanisms, such as carbon trading and/or pricing to facilitate reallocation of capital and resources to support commercialisation of new fuels and technologies

Remove carbon emissions:

  • Resort to carbon sequestration to an extent of around 1.3 Gt CO2, using nature-based solutions and /or carbon capture and storage to achieve net zero emissions by 2050

The report adds that success in achieving the net zero emissions goal will depend on clear and coherent policies at the national and sub national level. It suggests that the economic and social impact of the transition will need to be understood and managed, and a well-designed policy framework will be required to contain the overall macroeconomic costs; address transition impacts and ensure more resilient and environmentally just outcomes for the most vulnerable and underserved communities.