Protecting vulnerable citizens and tackling energy poverty have become specific policy priorities in the legislative package Clean Energy for All Europeans, and have been also recently strengthened with the Recommendation on Energy Poverty issued as part of the Renovation Wave package. In these documents, energy poverty is generally defined in terms of high-energy prices, low income and inefficient housing. Therefore, retrofit measures, funding mechanisms and targeted protection practices are often identified as a way to mitigate energy poverty.
However, it is only when vulnerable citizens get their different needs, rights and experiences recognized, and have access to the energy decision-making process, that the energy transition is likely to leave no one behind. In this regard, energy citizenship represents a way not only to address energy poverty and vulnerability, but also to promote energy justice. However, its potential is still under-researched. This mapping exercise by Joint Research Centre (European Commission) contributes to the recent emerging literature on energy citizenship by looking at the best practices offered by European projects.
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