Without taking into account the realities and risks during implementation, an over-reliance on hydropower could lead to a vulnerable energy system in Pakistan. Projects that are yet to achieve their financial closure or begin construction should be put on hold. Recommendations include installing floating solar on existing reservoirs and canals, incentivizing private rooftop solar solutions, as well as modernizing grid infrastructure.

According to IEEFA’s “To build or not to build: Keeping Pakistan’s hydropower reliance in check”, otherwise, it is highly likely that insufficient hydropower production could prompt a shift back to fossil fuels. This would not only defeat the purpose of building more hydropower, but also undermine the country’s struggle to move away from expensive imported fuels.

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