This report focuses on ensuring a just transition while phasing out coal in three selected countries: Indonesia, the Philippines and Viet Nam. These countries are among the five economies with the highest levels of coal consumption in Southeast Asia. Indonesia and Viet Nam are important coal producers while the Philippines relies heavily on coal imports. All three countries are simultaneously among the most vulnerable to climate change. A just transition away from coal is indispensable, yet coal phase-out is on their policy agendas only to varying degrees. Furthermore, the “phase-out” of coal was replaced with a “phase down” in the Glasgow Climate Pact (UNFCCC 2021) due to the dependency of developing countries on coal to meet a growing energy demand during their development process (The Guardian 2021).
The methodology used in this study includes research and analysis of the most up-to-date data and information available; tripartite consultations with constituents in Indonesia, the Philippines and Viet Nam, and consultation with the UN Resident Coordinator Offices as well as the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Country Offices in the three countries.
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